periodic waves

{\upsilon} = f \cdot {\lambda}

\operatorname{Δs} \left( x \,,\, t \right) = Δs \cdot \sin \left( 2 \cdot {\pi} \cdot \left( ft-\frac{x}{{\lambda}} \right) \right)


f = \frac{1}{T}

beat frequency

f_{beat} = f_{high}-f_{low}

interference fringes

n \cdot {\lambda} = d \cdot \sin \left( {\theta} \right)
\frac{n \cdot {\lambda}}{d} \approx \defeq \frac{x}{L}


I = \frac{P}{A}

intensity level

L_{1} = 10 \cdot \operatorname{log}_{10} \left( \frac{I}{I_{0}} \right)

pressure level

L_{p} = 20 \cdot \operatorname{log}_{10} \left( \frac{ΔP}{\textit{ΔP}_{\textit{0}}} \right)

snell’s law

 n_1 \cdot \sin \left(\theta_{1} \right) = n_{2} \cdot \sin \left(\theta_{2} \right)

critical angle

\sin \left( \theta_{c} \right) = \frac{\textit{n}_{\textit{2}}}{\textit{n}_{\textit{1}}}

image location

\frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{\textit{d}_{\textit{0}}}+\frac{1}{d_{i}}

image size

M = \frac{h_{i}}{h_{o}}

M = \frac{d_{i}}{d_{o}}

index of refraction

n \defeq \approx \frac{c}{{\upsilon}}


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